Generally speaking, people with learning disabilities are of average or above average intelligence. There often appears to be a gap between the individual’s potential and actual achievement. This is why learning disabilities are referred to as “hidden disabilities”: the person looks perfectly “normal” and seems to be a very bright and intelligent person, yet may be unable to demonstrate the skill level expected from someone of a similar age, which in turn lead to failure in the academic process. The reasons for the learning disabilities are due to the disorder of the following basic intellectual abilities:
- Visual Perception:identifying details, painted symbols, directions, image and background, part of the whole.
- Phonological Awareness:differentiate between similar sounds; distinguish phonetic symbols for words; analysis and word creation from phonetic symbols and words’ complement throughits phonemes’ parts.
- Auditory and Visual Memory:short-term memory and long-term memory, retrieving or recalling of memory, working memory.
- Language:words spelling and definition, vocabulary, rules, words’ building.
- Listening and Attention: excessive movement, impulsiveness and recklessness, dispersion and lack of concentration.
- Sense: excessive sensitivity or sensuous laziness.
- Motor and Sensory Performance: fine and gross muscles and motor-sensory interaction (kinesthetic).
- Presence disorders in an empty space.